Javier Ruis: Illustrations

Specializing within illustrative work, Javier Ruis Flores bases himself in California and focuses his work within pen, ink and graphite design work. I found these pieces of work created by the designer on an artist and design blog. Working within digital design, illustrative work, T Short design and Character art, Flores’ illustration designs captured my attention as they stood at a clear contrasting style to his other work. ImageI love the realism in the drawing of these designs however what draws me into these pieces of work the most is the colours tones used. A blend of warm tones and the original marks from the graphite work together to produce a unique and set of tones. One criticism I do have with this work is that once one piece has been seen, work cerated similar to this look the same despite being a different context. I do however find the pure white background contrasted against the graphite markings has been chosen perfectly as it allows the initial design to be the focal point. This second image has to be my favorite. I adore the colours being used layered on top of the original markings of the materials. Unknown to why this piece has been created or it’s purpose, I simply find it appealing to view. I have not seen work like this before and it immediately appealed to me as the intricate detail used mixed with the simple colours and background allows a perfected illustration to be drawn. I find it harder to communicate with the audience through drawings alone, using type is an easier element to use as words can be included. When viewing this work I interpret it in my own way. When firstly seeing this piece I believed that the concept behind the work was to express kings of animals such as wolves and lions in the iconic ‘uniform’ of human kings. So in this piece a wolf has been given an iconic, stereotypical indian head piece worn by chiefs of the tribes. I believe that this may be the initial idea of the designer and find it an unusual yet exciting concept to work with. I like how the colours are of a bolder tone in this piece compared to the previous. Criticizing this piece in one way however is that I doubt that the colours link to the concept of the design. I think that if the designer has used colours which linked to the symbolisms of the kings of animals that the design includes then it may force the piece to work better as a whole rather than just a simple illustration. However, experimenting with colours would show which tones worked best and the colours that the designer has used work well together. If used in a campaign and given these coloirs as a style then I believe they would work greatly. Perhaps a small line of text could have been placed at the bottom of the piece to be used in a campaign styled set? Communicating with the audience I believe that Flores has taken many elements of this piece into consideration when designing, for instance blending the animal to the garment, the layout, format of the layout and choosing a discrete background colour which would highlight the illustrations within. Overall I find this pieces of work by Javier Ruis Flores extremely effective and appealing in an illustration style but I do believe they would work better in a larger set! The most appealing aspects of this work to me include the realism behind the work and the pink and blue tones used to finish off the work perfectly.


Lukas Holas: Animal Photography


Lukas Holas’ “Portraits of Animals” campaign includes amazingly beautiful black and white photographs that highlight the empowering personality of the animals that are being illustrated. Alone these photographs communicate the power and beauty of the animals that are being pictured however as an advertising approach the scene would need other elements to successfully communicate a message about the issue to the audience such as brand name, description and/or slogan. However, even looking at these photographs, I find them highly admire the skill of the photographer. I admire the beauty of the animal and the power that they are given. These “Breathtaking” images are “a matter of my heart.” describes this designer and it is clear to see through his work that his passion for the animals is clear. Photographing things that he loves is a way for this designer to capture the intensity of the scene and the importance of the  animal in it. Viewing and communicating with this set of photographs, it is clear to understand why the designer has pictured the scene with the animals highlighted against the dark and mysterious background. The contrast in colour is not only a very clever and successful approach to use but adds a seriousness to the scene. The black and white tones add a sophisticated elements to the animals, it adds power, it adds depth that manipulates the audience into wanting to view and understand the personality of the animals included in the images.  A lot of the animals are captured in natural yet model like poses, personally I interpret this as a way for this designer to capture the animals in human ways, creating a link between us and animals. 

His love and admiration for animals radiates clearly through each and every powerful close-up”. I believe that this designers love for the animals that he captured in his work allows him to gain a more successful response from his audience, he adds a personal love to his work and successfully takes his admiration for the animals as his sole inspiration, this is an element I love from this designers work, his passion not only for his trait but for the objects he is photographing.


Using black and white tones within his photographs, I believe that this designer is able to intensify the beauty and power of these animals as the features of the face such as eyes, mouth and fur is heightened and the contrast between the tones allows them to focus on the audience and capture their attention in order to communicate with them. The manipulate the audience to be drawn in and want to understand the story behind the animal, understand their personality and how they feel, this almost gives the animal a personified meaning not only within his work but within this world.

Using “simple yet elegant” black and white shots each of the animals individualities are forced upon the audience and using photography as his main medium the realism within the theme he is working within, I find this an appealing and most successful approach to use. Using “his skills in digital photography and graphic design to edit out the background from his photos and instead inserts a pure black backdrop for the animals” this designers professional approach is obvious to the audience and his process works exceptionally well in order to produce professional and appealing work to communicate to this audience. From his unique process and style, the chosen background allows the “impressive physical characteristics and personalities take the forefront” of the scene and keep the audiences attention solely on the animal that the designer wants them to focus on.


Every image within Holas’ photography set is “enhanced by beautiful lighting and incredible detail, the intimate style of these portraits perfectly showcases his very inspiring approach”, an approach that immediately captures the attention of the audience and captured them into his work. 

Personally I love how this designer refrains from using type in his work and allows the photography to take centre stage to the audiences attention. Their attention is mainly attracted to the animal being processed and they can then interpret the scene to their own, personal view, they can give the animal a background, a character and a personality. I like this effect as the work becomes more personal for the audience and does not reduce the appeal by giving the animal a specific personality and narrative. However, at the moment this image set is simply appealing to the audience, it is not created for a purpose such as supporting an issue of campaign, promoting an object or product or telling a tale. If this were used for an advertising purpose then it would most likely benefit from additional type or used in an interesting medium/place. Despite simply being an appealing and attractive photograph set I believe that or the purpose of creation the communication between imagery and audience works successfully. Overall I extremely love this designers work, the seriousness and passion that is included within the creation and process. 

Overall I believe that this designer has created an extremely appealing and successful set of images which perfectly suit the purpose of creation as well as being overall appealing to the intended audience. Also, reflecting upon these pieces I believe that he seriousness of these photographs would appeal to an older audience as children would not find the bold, black and white approach as appealing as colour. Also the realistic approach of photography would not appeal or attract a younger audience like illustrative cartoon styles would. An older audience would most definitely be appealed to this design. 

AJ Fosik: Animal Installations

Image“Fosik’s feral creations take the shape of fantastic beings that communicate through symbolized fictional gods” is a clear description of how AJ Fosik uses his animistic installations to communicate a unique context with his audience. His work creates the illusion that these animals have “powers” through clear “theological narrative”. These “Masterfully made objects” use distinctive shapes to create natural beings. Fosik blends geographical shapes and lines to create natural animal which is a unique approach to use. Alongside the natural outline of the beast being communicated, this designer uses bold colour and pattern to attack the audiences attention and gain their appeal manipulating them to focus within his work. I find the patterns link to cultural work and the “powers” of the traditions that are stereotypically given to them. I truly enjoy looking at Fosik’s work especially his “Always to Dust” collection as the colours connect and contrast well with one another in appealing yet confusing ways. This designer blends graphic, colour, format and design to create his unique installations. 

AJ Fosik has a “technicolour” edge to his wooden sculptures. Many of his designs have been given fluorescent eyes. This could easily and most obviously have been done to force the audience to be immediately attracted to these chosen features of the face of his animals however I would love to see his work under fluorescent lighting as inly chosen areas are painted in this colour and it would create an interesting and appealing view. The blend of bold, simple and eye catching colours allow Fosik’s animals to take on a personality of their own. The colours take the audience into the imagination of the animal as well as the designer and I find this a very interesting and successful approach. The eyes of an animal or person, photograph of illustration are most commonly a factor that immediately draws the audience in, within Fosik’s work they are exactly the features that do this as well as having fascinating colour/patterned borders to assist them. Often using bears within his work, Fosik uses inspiration from his home country that is known for its bears! Taking inspiration from his home town allows Fosik to have an added personal approach to his work and I believe that his pushes his work to be even more successful and it has been crafted to an even more height of perfection. Like if a person were drawing an image of a family member, they would ensure that it would be the best of their talent as it means a lot more to them. To native Americans, this animal would represents “patience and excellent teachers”. I believe that this designer has empowered his work to mimic the personalities that these animals have been stereotypically given. And I like it!

Using wood and in a sculptural installation design style to create these magnificent design pieces, I believe that AJ Fosik is able to use global origins to inspire each of his individual designs. The patterns and colours link to different cultures and backgrounds and I believe that using such a different and appealing theme throughout his work allows each piece to stand alone as well as communicating to the audience as a set. Fosik’s “abnormal fixation with carving” not only links to his work but to his career as he has created his own path to work within, making his work desired by many as they are unique. The original design style of this designer allows his work to communicate an original and personal message and concept to the audience. When viewing his work, I find it admiring to want to understand what each animal is about, what is their purpose and why have certain colours and shapes been chosen. Fosik’s aims to include the “random, chaotic and arbitrary nature of” the animals existence which he successfully completes through colour and shape/alignment. By using less recognizable iconography n his work, this designer is able to produce an imaginary personality to his animals and I find this a lot more playful than simply designing a bear to its exact likeness. Image

Mainly working in a 2D and 3D format, AJ Fosik allows his “pieces really exist in both places and that tension between the two is something I’m really interested in” therefore he is allowing his audience to understand the dimensions of the animal as well as the piece. Computer and digital art has had a large influence on Fosik’s working designs. Through digitally collaging, morphing and editing, Fosik previously used digital media to create most of his designs however he then worked from this to then create each individual piece by hand. I believe that his hand crafted work produces a more appealing effect on the audience as they can appreciate the skill that has been put into the craft rather than simply editing an image on a computer and printing it out. Looking at his past digital work as “dishonest” this designer had admitted that he prefers his hand crafted work as he ditched the computer and focused on the manual design. 

Physically removing his workspace from his home life, this designer allows his creativity to be kept solely on his work so that he refrains from creating more than one piece alike. Personally viewing this set of work from AJ Fosik, I find his designs completely appealing and interesting as I want to view and understand his concept more. The colours are key elements that draw my attention to the work. The unusual blend between 2D and 3D is a way for Fosik to immediately communicate with his audience, he is able to draw in their attention as he is communicating a different approach and design than others have used. 

Reflecting on Fosik’s work, I find that he is able to communicate traditional, cultural narratives with modernised graphic design. His work communicates “a subversive anti-religious commentary” through his depicted fictional gods that take place as bears through his installations. Assigning no specific powers, meanings or tales to each piece Fosik allows the colours and patterns to take the audiences attention and allow them to create a god like creature that the work can be, like a novel’s characters can be interpreted to who the reader wants them to be with little direction from the writer. “Spiritual iconography” is a key element within the concept of Fosik’s work and I believe that the unique concept alongside the unusual design and medium works perfectly well together. Seen as being “rich testaments to the power of his obsessive curiosity”, this designers work includes looming eyes, wide jaws and viscous expressions all created through carefully overlapped wooden shingles. I also find the angle of the animal fascinating as the animal is lunging toward the audience, as if they are attacking them, immediately gaining their attention and communicating the power struggle between audience and piece. These creations are anything but subtle and this is an excessively successful design choice by Fasik.

Overall I love these deigns!

Ricardo Fumanal: Illustrations


Spanish illustrator, Ricardo Fumanal has gained himself an impressive client list including Fred Perry, Revlon and Vogue as his work ranges between Fine Art and Fashion in his unique illustrative style. Fumanal’s professional areas delve within traditional drawing such as graphite, pens and ink to more media based work. I find his work completely mesmerizing as he refrains from allowing colour to interfere with his message/concepts. Fumanal intensifies his work with reality and clean cut drawings which I believe work well to communicate the message clearly with the audience refraining from misinterpretation to arise. I found Fumanals work extremely inspiring as it cleverly blends between reality and the illusions of fantasy that can be gained through illustration work. Fumanal’s work is often seen within advertisements and magazine editorial work, as I am working within this design area I found Fumanal’s work extremely interesting in order to understand how illustration can successfully communicate with the audience in this media area. Fumanal transforms images originally found on the internet into his own amazing designs, almost making them unrecognisable to the original. I do find his process interesting however I would personally be more appealed if he created the images from his own imagination rather than simply using one image and adding features to it, this is clearly a process that allows him to gain the realism within each of his pieces. A huge element of Fumanal’s work that proves successful is his talent to perfectly suit his drawings to the reason behind their creation. The message through his work of the product that the designer/client is advertising is clear in each illustration, this may be through colour, enhanced detail and/or medium. I prefer Fumanal’s back and white drawings to his colour designs as they add a large amount of seriousness and refrain from producing a cartoon style of approach. As my work has a serious tone to the issue that I am working with, this style of work inspired me greatly throughout experimenting with tones to use within my project. I believe that these tones communicate an extensive realistic message to the audience and the delicacy used within the illustrations clearly focusses on appealing to a more feminine audience. This could be a huge drawback if the client aims to appeal to a wider/mixed audience, like in my project I aim to communicate with a wide audience due to the seriousness and importance of the issue/concept.

In a lot of his work, Fumanal uses colour as a key element in order to highlight target areas of the scene such as advertising products and/or emphasising main words in a message. The contrasts of colour and black and white areas of the scenes depicted and created by Fumanal proves extremely appealing as the contrasts of colour attract the audiences attentions greatly and successfully gains their attention to then communicate with them. When looking at one of Fumanal’s pieces the purity of the white and bold, harsh black lining and shades work perfectly to attract the attentions of the audience. I find that the purity of the white creates an extremely simplistic/minimalistic scene, very successful for campaigns such as beauty, fashion and themes similar to this. This colour scheme would not work successfully with many projects however in a fashion illustrative style this design works very well. For my work for instance this design scheme may not work as it produces a clean cut, pretty, feminine approach to the issue.

Using intense detail in his illustrations, Fumanal is able to create a very realistic scene in order to communicate the message of the issue clearly with the audience. I find the sever shading and darkened tones very sophisticated and serious, however they are used in a less harsh tone. Personally, I prefer to delve within darkened tones like Fumanal however I believe that if used within an issue as serious as mine it may not work as successfully as a simple photograph and the seriousness of the issue is a main element that would be more successfully communicated through a photograph than through an illustration. Lines are crucial within Fumanals work. Due to the style and techniques that this designer uses such as the traditional skills and process, lines are kept simple and bold so that the features of the image are clearly communicated with the audience allowing the message to be clear and successful.

Main elements of this work that I find highly appealing is the use of black and white tones and intense shading. Fumanal’s work produces a graphic style but through illustrations and the heightened depth created by tones work extremely well to gain the audiences attention. Looking at a lot of this designers work I find the human images a lot more successful than the animals! It is clear to understand how this designer produces very fashion based scenes and styles of illustrations and I find them more successful than his advertising work. Described as having a “confrontation between figures and background”, I find that the beautiful contrast between tones and the elements between the foreground and background works extremely well as he uses a range of resources such as tropical items, spontaneous icons and tangling elements to create unique designs and scenes.

It is clear that in a lot of Fumanal’s work he is aiming to communicate the realism of the image and scene to the audience through a very soft, simplistic and extremely realistic approach. Inspirations within an artists work can be crucial to their imagination and the success of the work. A lot of fashion based media have been inspiring to this designer ranging from photography to catwalks and casting and this can clearly be seen in a lot of his work! I find Fumanal’s work successful when communicating with his audience however I believe that in an advertising format simple type would be a lot more enhancing and successful when communicating to the audience, to sell the product. For instance a simple sentence, or the brands name, slogan. I believe that this work could be furthered a great deal and could be improved to work better in the advertising media, in order to simply produce a nice illustrations that viewers may admire I believe that this designer creates his work well. When advertising a product I believe that using photography works a lot more successfully and illustrations work better to produce an image that looks appealing to the audience.

ENPA Animal Testing Campaign

The image above is an advertising piece created by the ENPA Campaign in order to highlight the harsh reality of testing animals for beauty products. The use of photography in order to create these pieces allows a great deal of realism to be obtained in the scene. As the image shows the human using an innocent animal as an object, its hits home the reality behind the issue. I really like how the animal is objectified in this piece in order to highlight how these animals are being used for our luxury! This is a perfect way for the realisation of the subject to be highlighted! The background to the piece also works as a highlight to the female and animal within the foreground allowing the central attention of the audience to be kept on the main object and refrains from overpowering the image at the same time. The facial expression of the female within the piece clearly highlights the idea that humans enjoy using animals for their luxury, through objects such as beauty products, items that aren’t needed but wanted.

This piece includes informative type that is large enough to be seen and understood yet small enough to be understated and refrain from overpowering the image. Giving detail into the campaign and the company, the white typeface is clearly readable by the audience, clear against the darkened background and simplistic enough not to take the attention away from the main image. I like the choice of colour and placement in this piece in regards to the type as it suits the piece as a whole and works well for its purpose. As a viewer to this piece I find the choice of placement and layout working extremely well. The type and image together work as a team and are appealing to the audience.

Another element of this piece that I find highly appealing is the change of depth and tone of the background. The darker tone is used behind the lighter foreground and lightens toward the negative space of the scene making sure that the audience are not drawn to a blank colour but a change in tone. To me I find this more appealing than less attractive. Image

Despite understanding the conceptual message being highlighted here, I believe that the way the animal is portrayed, in the piece is slightly unnatural which in one sense would link to how they are used unnaturally for products however would refrain from the audience believing the piece and scene. Perhaps using a more natural stance of the animals would benefit the piece greatly. Another benefit to this piece would be to use the animals in their products, for instance if the animal was in a perfume bottle.

Communicating with the audience through a realistic view of the of the issue at hand, this piece for instance forces the reality of the testing of animals to the audience. Using a small innocent, cute animal would also appeal to the sympathetic side of the audience. Like how many advertising agencies use young children to appeal to the mothering side of the audience, the use of a baby animal works in a similar way, I find this technique highly appealing and extremely successful in order to gain an appeal from the audience. As an overall piece, this advertisement works perfectly in communicating the message to the audience. The chosen audience for this piece in particular would clearly be a more female based audience as the scene uses make up and luxury beauty items which would mainly be an appeal to females, and an older female range. If children were to view this piece they simply would not understand, perhaps this style of imagery could be used in a set and each would benefit from appealing to different people in each. For instance, one could appeal to a male audience, one for children and another for females. This would gain a wide audience range as well as pushing the issue to gain more audiences.

So what is this piece saying?

Clearly the piece in question is highlighting how young, innocent, defenceless animals are being tested for products used by humans. Using an animal in a way that would clearly be recognised by the audience clearly refraining from the wrong message being processed. As the model in the image has a very “beauty advertisement” view, it portrays the idea of animals being used for product testing greatly. The use of simplistic and minimalistic type also allows the audience to have an informative insight into the message behind the work which prevents the audience from misinterpreting the entire scene.

Is this successful in its aim?

As an audience to this piece I believe that it is successful to its purpose as it clearly highlights the message that it is portraying as well as being appealing in itself. I believe that this scene has been a success in design as well as suiting it’s purpose.

Onekind: “Advocates for Animals”

ImageOneKind is a UK based animal rights industry that has had a campaign created in order to highlight the similarities between humans and animals using celebrities in order to gain a heightened amount of audience attraction! I admire how this campaign uses celebrities as it is a good way to gain the attention of the audience. Society and media within our age has taken over causing celebrities to become role models and using them within the campaign would manipulate the audience into wanting to understand and view the images as they recognise those involved. A main element of the campaign that I find extremely appealing is the way that the celebrities and animals look alike. From the facial expressions to how their personalities would match. For instance the make up used within the image above causes the the celebrity model to look more like the animal, adding depth to the eyes and enhancing the colours. Another element of this feature that I find highly appealing is the use of bold colours to highlight the important aspects of the image. The faces of the celebrity and animal are heightened in colour manipulating the audiences attention to be focused on their similarities between them and refrain other  areas being a distraction. Using white type in order to inform the audience is another successful element that the designers have used. As the background has been kept excessively dark the type stands out without taking the audiences attention away from the images. Using another colour such as red of pink may have taken the attention of the audience away from the audience, proving that white has been a perfect choice. Also, white appeals to both male and female audiences, alongside the use of both male and female celebrities the choice of type colour adds to a wider audience appeal. The use of a main slogan on the piece which links brilliantly with the images used and the overall conceptual message is a way for the designers to inform the audience of the message that is being portrayed as well as preventing the the type from overpowering the whole piece. When viewing this piece I understand the message that is being portrayed across, that humans and animals are the same. Aiming to highlight how killing animals is like killing ourselves I believe that this piece works well in highlighting it’s purpose. However, criticising this piece slightly I believe that a more appropriate way to further the images used would be to use them at a larger scale as I believe that the amount of negative, dark background space can be slightly overpowering to the audience. master.merle1

Like in the image above and to the right, the faces of the celebrities link to the faces of the animals. Their appearances are aimed to match up. In the image using Johnny Vegas and a bear I find the facial expressions of the bear unappealing, as if the designers have adjusted the expression to suit the human, this is to me seems wrong as it goes against the concept, they have changed the face to suit the purpose, a meaning totally against the initial aim of the piece being created.

Besides this, I love how the celebrities signatures are also used in the piece as it adds a personal touch to the work, This would appeal to me if I were the audience. Clearly, the audience appeal is aimed at a more older audience as the celebrities used would generally not appeal to younger children. However, a range of celebrity faces have been used to appeal to different audience types. Researching into this advertising set, I have found three to four styles of designs within this campaign, I believe that this may reduce the audience range as more celebrities used may widen the audience.

Gaining a large range of feedback and support one of the creators announced that  “A lot of people have gone the extra mile to make this campaign happen – from the client, right through to the agents and the celebrities involved.  Our recent work for the Seals campaign attracted record numbers of new supporters, and we are hoping that this activity will create widespread interest in all of the work that Advocates for Animals does.” proving that the campaign has proved a success. Personally I like the campaign and find that it works well with the message that is being portrayed. The simplistic and repetitive layout allows the separate images to work as a set all linking in design however each appealing to a separate audience range and highlighting the same conceptual message.


Collin Bogle: Wildlife Paintings


Creating excessively realistic, and beautiful animal wildlife paintings, Collin Bogle has “remarkable ability to capture detail and to master the use of light in natural settings became hallmarks of his work”. He uses delicate, traditional techniques to create his work. Allowing his work to take lives of their own through the extensive use of light and shadows this artist is able to work in a unique playground in each scene. Focusing mainly within pastels, watercolours and paints/pencils the traditional materials and media used perfectly suit the style of work created by Bogle. Fascinated by the beauty of nature, animals have continually been an inspiration for his style of work, perfectly linking to my project. Striving to “create magical moments in nature where attributes such as composition, lighting, color and animal expression come together in perfect harmony” Collin Bogle manages to successfully do this throughout a range of his iconic, brilliantly painted pieces. Perfectly choosing a range of elements such as shading, lighting, format, colour and positioning Bogle defines these features of his work in order to communicate his concept to his audience. Clearly the audience than he focuses his work to appeal to is an older more sophisticated audience range. This is obvious due to the style of painting that Bogle uses. Realistic painting is used in order to duplicate scenes that would be found in the habitats of the animals that are being illustrated within. This is done so that the artist can create his idealisation of what the animals live like. Using a more cartoon style would appeal to a younger audience but realistic painting has been used as the Imagetarget audience is of an older range. The eyes of the paintings are always made a focus point of the paintings and the use of enhanced colours attract the audiences attention manipulating them to want to view the piece of work. I really like this unique feature used. It would mainly be used through photography and is a common edit style to use. I find this elemental feature perfect for this artists style of work as his scenes and animals almost become fantasy like. This is a unique way to illustrate wildlife animals through art. Communicating the beauty of these animals with his audience the enhanced colour and focus eye point works perfectly. The same style of facial expression is used in all paintings created by this artist. I like how his work is constantly relating to one another however I d believe that he would be able to gain a wider audience range and a larger style of portfolio is he allowed his animals to take new forms. 

Successfully communicating the beauty of the animals with the audience through the enhanced colour used, I believe that it may cause the audiences attention to be used sparingly and refrain them from focusing on a central area. In order to use this style of work through a more graphic advertising style of work it would be more useful to use photography and edit. It would certainly be a faster approach as painting the scenes is undoubtedly a more time consuming technique. Aiming to convey a story or meaning behind his work, this artist prefers to add a new sense to his work rather than a simple, common animal in it’s habitat. Admitting that he uses Photoshop to enhance his work to finalize the results, I find this almost stops his work from being traditional and almost ruins the originality of his style of portfolio. His work simply shows good crafted paintings being seen by the viewer in relation to using these for other purposes photography would be more suitable and appropriate mediums to use.

As a viewer to this work I find the eyes are the focal point, personally they are the areas that really appeal to me and make me want to understand the animal. This style of approach would suit my project perfectly. The would be good to use in an anti-hunting campaign as the eyes allow the audience to look deeper into the personality of the animal, highlighting that they aren’t just object they live like us. I aim to delve within this and research this style of work.